ARC Europe (Anti-Radicalisation Centres Initiative) embraces soft anti-terrorism and passive strategic means in the domestic fight of European countries against terrorism. What ARC Europe does not condone is unethical tactics. Below, we provide a non-exhaustive list of methods we tend to support and such which are generally unsupported by our NGO.
Efforts which should be held as sustainable:
- use of positive influencing from family and friends
- positive incentives and empowerment through education and work
- use of tendentially harmless PR techniques
- lawful information gathering
- below-threshold warnings and referrals to legal provisions
- use of discourse such as one-by-one dialog (e.g. with social workers)
- financial controls
- removal of criminal content from the internet
- judicial measures such punitive fines, community service and detainment
Measures which are unsustainable:
- fully-fledged psychological attacks
- use of psychoactive drugs
- unlawful use of kinetic weapons
- use of unconventional weapons
- overreaching application of information technology
- capital punishment
- unlawful, pseudo-judicial measures to attain particularist political ends
- other applications leading to different kinds of individual and societal dysfunction
As always, an over-reliance, in this case on anti-terrorist utilities, bears the tendency of yielding unwarranted, negative effects. Foreseeably (especially irreparable) damage to the physical integrity of a person and to the integrity of society is, indeed, absolutely reprehensible. Measures causing physical and psychological harm have partly been banned by international conventions already.
A note to political decision-makers: he who has the means and tools of anti-terrorism at his disposal risks excess in the application of measures up to so-called extreme measures. The idea of a guided society is an enticement which has to be prevented at all cost. It runs against the principles of religion and humanism. Using a range of policing and psychological tools and measures systematically can breach the principles of human rights, and at the advent of mass-use of artificial intelligence, can either negatively enhance the capabilities of terrorists or stride to the level of the above-mentioned dystopia of a guided society, which we advocate against.
Thorsten Koch, MA, PgDip